Wednesday, May 29, 2019

May 29, 2019

Horn of Africa : Fact, Geography, Religion and Economy of Africa : Fact, Geography, Religion and Economy
The horn of Africa is located in the Northeast of African continent and it is a peninsula. It extends into the Arabian Sea and along the South of the Gulf of Aden. The countries that make up the Horn of Africa are Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia and Djibouti.

Bio data of Countries in the Horn of Africa of Africa : Fact, Geography, Religion and Economy
Name- Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
Year of Independence: Never colonized
Capital City: Addis Ababa                               
Official Language: Amharic     
Currency: Birr of Africa : Fact, Geography, Religion and Economy
Name- Republic of Djibouti
Year of Independence: 1977
Capital City: Djibouti          
Official Language: French, Arabic and Somali
Currency: Djiboutian franc
Samori Toure's Mandinka resistance against the French of Africa : Fact, Geography, Religion and Economy
Name- Federal Republic of SomaliaYear of Independence: 1960
Capital City: Mogadishu                          
Official Language: Somali and Arabic
Currency: Somali shilling of Africa : Fact, Geography, Religion and Economy
Name- State of Eritrea
Year of Independence:De facto 1991 and De jure 1993
Capital City: Asmara                              
Official Language: None but has a working language (Tigrinya, Arabic and English)
Currency: Nakfa
They are sometimes referred to as the Puntite by the Egyptians,  Abyssinian (Abyssinia, former name of Ethiopia), and are currently referred to as the Horners. The land areas covers approximately 2 million km2 (770 thousand sq mile)  and with a population of roughly 115 million people (Ethiopia: 96.6 million, Somalia 15.4 million, Eritrea 6.4 million, and Djibouti 0.81 million)  and they share border with Sudan to the North,  Southern Sudan to the West,  Kenya to the South and the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, Arabian Sea to the East. of Africa : Fact, Geography, Religion and Economy

The Horn of Africa contains diverse terrains like the Ogaden desert, the highlands of Ethiopian Plateau, the Eritrean Coast as well as that of the Somalians and it is a home to Amhara, Tigray, Oromo, and Somali people. The Horn of Africa also called the Somalia Peninsula has three dominant religions that is widely practiced by the people and they are: Islam, Christianity and Judaism but they also have little segment of the population that practice traditional religion and practices.
The economy of the Horn of Africa according to IMF 2010 had a total GDP(PPP) of $106.224 billions and nominal of $35.819 billion. Some countries relies on export of products like coffee in Ethiopia and Banana and livestock in Somalia.

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Thursday, May 23, 2019

May 23, 2019

Samori Toure’s Mandinka Resistance against the French Toure’s Mandinka resistance against the French
Next in the Anti- expansionist resistance by Africans is the Samori Toure’s Mandinka resistance against the French.

Samori Toure defended his Mandinka Empire sometimes referred to as Wassoulou Empire from the French occupation and expansion in Africa from 1883- 1898 before its collapses and annexation into the French empire.
The French faced one of the stiffest resistance in the history of Europeans colonization, Samori had succeeded in establishing an empire around the upper basin of the River Niger by the year 1882, the capital was at Bissandugu, the French were not happy about the development and looked with envy at this rising empire and sought to conquer it into their colonial empire. After much persuasion by the French for Samori to surrender his sovereignty and independence to the French had failed, the French declared war on the empire in 1883.
Ammunition used by the armies of Samori were bought in Freetown, Sierra Leone from the British and also made by local blacksmiths, the use of cavalry and his knowledge of the terrain helped his resistance greatly. After few battles, he signed a treaty with the French in exchanged for peace which he gave up some of his territories. In 1886, the French violated the terms of the treaty and war/hostility resumed but few years later it was not too favorable to Samori because the British stopped the sale of arms to his armies in 1893 in accordance with the Brussels convention of 1890 among European colonizers.
After incurring major losses, he moved his capital to Dabakala and later surrendered in 1898 and was exiled by the French to Gabon where he died in 1900. His military skills a a commander earned him the appellation “Napoleon of Africa”.

Friday, May 17, 2019

May 17, 2019

Maji Maji resistance against the Germans 1905/1907 Maji resistance against the Germans 1905/1907
On 31 of July 1905, Matumbi tribesmen marched on Samanga and destroyed the cotton crop as well as trading post. The Maji Maji uprising in German East Africa was one of the most significant African challenges faced by the German colonial aspiration and leadership. The resistance lasted for two years and the casualties were estimated around 250000-300000 total death and injured, mostly civilian from famine, cross fire and hunger etc. 
Tanganyika (modern day Tanzania) was acquired by the German during the scramble for Africa and the Berlin Conference of 1884/1885, but the Germans established control over Tanganyika on 1898,and imposed a violent regime in other to control the population.
The brutal and oppressive administration imposed by the Germans made the people angry and it became unbearable when drought hit a region in Tanganyika, a prophet, Kinjikitile Ngwale claimed to be possessed by a snake spirit called Hongo and also can make a sacred liquid that could repel German bullets called “Maji Maji. The first group of rebellious tribes armed themselves with arrows, spears and the maji maji water to attack the first small German outpost at Samanga and to destroy the cotton crops.
It was the first significant rebellion that included most or all ethnic groups of Tanganyika against the Germans, some other reasons includes the seizure of native lands from indigenes to create German plantations, forceful use of the natives to work on cotton plantations, forbidding them from growing food crops and the Germans implementation of harsh methods to make them work harder.
To restore order, the Germans had to bring in soldiers from Sudan to defeat the resistance, the town of Samanga was destroyed and many Africans were killed. After restoring their authority, the Germans executed the leaders of the resistance.

Sunday, May 12, 2019

May 12, 2019

History of Africa before 1879 History
Before 1879, most of the interior and hinterland of the African continent was made up of states and kingdoms that enjoyed self government, sovereignty and limited independence from influence of the colonial might and their imperialist ambitions.
Apart from a few territories, the coastal areas like cape colony, Algeria, Senegal, Luanda , the Canary Islands and parts of the Gold Coast, which were directly or indirectly under European control, Africa's hinterland was free of colonial influence. European nations with lands and possessions along the African costal cities by 1879, including Portugal, British Empire, France and Spain. Powerful kingdoms in Africa at that time included the Fulani Empire Buganda, the Zulu kingdom, the Congo Kingdom, Asante and Zanzibar. These states of Africa had well organized political systems, sound societies and flourishing economics. The Europeans that traded with Africans did so with respect and at equal basis.
Most Europeans visitors to Africa by 1800-1880 were not so much interested in acquiring colonies but concerned more on trade, Forts were built on costal areas where the Europeans carried out trading activities. These forts served as residence and storage for goods that were brought by African middlemen who went into the interior of the continent. It was during the last twenty years of the century that changes started manifesting from costal areas to the interior of the continent.

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Tuesday, May 7, 2019

May 07, 2019

The Speech that defined Democracy

The popular Gettysburg Address was a speech that the United State's President Abraham Lincoln delivered at a ceremony of the Soldier's National Cemetery in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania on Thursday November 19, 1863 in honour of the fallen heroes at the victorious Battle of Gettysburg against the Confederacy.
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"Fourscore and seven years ago our fathers brought forth, on this continent, a new nation, conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived, and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battle-field of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting-place for those who here gave their lives, that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate, we cannot consecrate—we cannot hallow—this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us—that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they here gave the last full measure of devotion—that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain—that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom, and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth."
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What do you think about the speech, please leave a comment below!!!

Saturday, May 4, 2019

May 04, 2019

The Making of Europe's first Modern Constitution making of Europe's first Modern Constitution
Many people may have thought that French Constitution was the first modern constitution in Europe but surprising to them it's their Eastern Europe neighbor Poland-Lithuanian Commonwealth who had theirs four months earlier than the French even if their revolution date back to 1789 but the first French Constitution came a little too late on September 1791.
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Polish Parliament adopted their constitution on the 3rd of May 1791,making them the first in Europe and second in the world only to the United States of America who adopted theirs in 1787. making of Europe's first Modern Constitution
Also read: World First Labour Party Government
The Polish constitution was a constitution monarchy and it restricted some powers vested on noblemen who prior to that date had the power to singlehandedly veto a bill and can be bride to stop the progress for their selfish purpose, that veto (liberum veto) was also abolished along side other anti liberal powers of the noblemen.
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Must read: Why India and Pakistan wants Kashmir
Due to the imperialistic ambition of polish neighbors (Russian Empire, Prussia and Austria) the constitution lost effect after polish defeat on 24 July 1972 and Poland was partitioned between them.

Thursday, May 2, 2019

May 02, 2019

World First Labour Party Government

In the year 1904, Chris Watson led the first Labour Party government as the Prime Minister of Australia.
Australia practice a parliamentary system of government whereby the head of state(Governor General) is different from the head of government who forms the government from the majority in the House of Representatives elected by the masses.
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Also read : How the Europeans settled in Australia
In 1903,a federal election was conducted and the labour part had a upper hand but did not meet the requirements to form a government at the federal level, so after a little tussle for power they were able to form the first minority Labour Party government, first of it kind in the entire history but it didn't last more than three months before it collapsed in July of the same year,  it was initially a breakthrough for the Labour Party that year because few years later in 1910 federal election the Labour Party government won it's first majority government in Australia and around the world.
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Must read: Why India and Pakistan wants Kashmir
What do you think of the current Labour Party government policies in our contemporary world!!!

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