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Thursday, March 21, 2019

How the Europeans Partitioned Africa


As a result of the heightened tension between European states in the last quarter of the 19th century, the partitioning of Africa may be seen as a way for the Europeans to eliminate the threat of a Europe-wide war over Africa. The last 59 years of the 19th century saw transition from ‘informal imperialism’ of control through military influence and economic dominance to that of direct rule. To avoid a war in the struggle to acquire lands in Africa.
I will give in details below how Africa was shared among the Europeans and who got what :
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Germany and her colonies - Germany took Kamerun (Cameroon), Togoland, South West Africa, Rwanda, Burundi and Tanganyika. Germany's right over these colonies ended when the Treaty of Versailles was signed in 1919. Thereafter these territories became mandates, administered under the league of Nations by the Victorious powers in the First World. Togo and Cameron came under the control of British and French rule. 
Portugal and her colonies - Portugal's colonies were Angola, Mozambique Guinea Bissau and Cape Verde.
Spain and her colonies - Spain took Spanish Guinea (Equatorial Guinea) and Spanish Sahara. 
Belgium and her colonies - Belgium took formal control over the Belgium Congo, Rwanda and Burundi was later handed over to her by the mandate of the League of Nations to administer.
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Italy and her colonies - Italy took control of Libya, Italy Somaliland and Eritrea. She later used force to occupy Abyssinia after trying twice but was driven out during the Second World War.
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British Empire and her colonies - British claimed Egypt, Sudan, Kenya, Uganda, the Gambia,  and Nigeria, The Gold Coast (Ghana),  Nyasaland, Bechumaland, South Africa, Basutuland, Rhodesia, Sierra Leone, Swaziland and Zanzibar. 
France and her colonies - France got given the present day Tunisia, Senegal, Gabon, Niger, Cote d'Ivore, Morocco, Burkina Faso (Upper Volta), Madagascar, Mauritius, Mauritania, Guinea-Conarkry, Central Africa, Mali, Chad, Algeria, Congo Brazzaville, Comoros Islands, Benin Republic (Dohemey).  Parts of Togoland and Cameron came under French control through the Mandela of the league of Nations.
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Some colonies were never colonized by the Europeans, Ethiopia which successfully resisted Italian colonization and Liberia which was a territory of American Freed slaves.

1 comment:

  1. tanzinia and cameroon was transferred to British, and French empire after WW1. I didn't know cameroon was under german. it's a good texts for me to understand History of africa. thank you.

    ReplyDelete