Friday, June 21, 2019

June 21, 2019

First Italo-Ethiopian War - Italian embarrassing defeat in Africa

The first Italo- Ethiopian war was fought between Italy and Ethiopia from 1894 - 1896, after the scramble and partition of Africa in the Berlin Conference of 1884/1885, Ethiopia remained independent and the Italian saw it as an opportunity to acquire more possession in the Horn of Africa by conquering Ethiopia. Italy had focused on the Red Sea areas around East Africa and have troops in the port city of Massawa in Eritrea which was then part of the Ethiopian Empire. 
The Italian government failed to evaluate closely the situation of Ethiopia due to the crisis they had with who would succeed the throne as the next emperor which caused disunity among Ethiopian noblemen.
On March 25 1889, the Shewa ruler Menelik II having acquired Tigray and Amhara declared himself the Emperor of Ethiopia with little support of Italian government so on May 2, he signed a treaty( Treaty of Wuchale) as part of their influence in his ascension which gave the Italian the administrative control of Eritrea and some portion of Red Sea Coast in return for Italian recognition of his rule. 
The treaty was bilingual in the sense that it was written in both Italian and Amharic(a language of Ethiopia), the Italian version of the treaty established Ethiopia as an Italian protectorate while the Amharic version stated that Emperor Menelik II can conduct foreign affairs through Italy if he wants to do so. 
Emperor Menelik II fought for a diplomatic solution but he was unable to achieve it so on February 12 1893, he terminated the Wuchale treaty, before that Menelik took the opportunity to make friendly relations with Russia and France(Djoubioti) while he sought for peaceful solutions. 
The Italian never expected the war to as long as it did,  they expected an overwhelming victory over the Ethiopian army thinking that they were small, poorly armed and disunity among noblemen after the tussle for the throne but they were wrong,  the entire tribes saw the Italian as their common enemy and they forgot their differences and forged together to fight off the colonialist. 
Emperor Menelik II assembled an army of 196,000 to partake in the conflict while the Italian were only able to gather 25,000 men including Eritrean fighters, it even got worse when the Italian found out at the battlefield that the Ethiopian armies were armed with modern rifle, rode on horseback and had rapid fire mountain guns. 
Emperor Menelik II
After much defeat from the Ethiopian forces,  the Italian army retreated to Mekele and Ethiopian army lay siege on the city for 45 days, the Ethiopian forces later occupied Adwa which was one of the important battles among many. The lost of Adwa by the Italian brought the war to a stalemate till early 1896. The Italians tried again to change the cost of the war with an offensive against the Ethiopian army but words got to the Emperor on time to strike first before the Italian were even prepared to attack. 
The casualties at the Battle of Adwa was so high on both side but it was an Ethiopian victory which gave the Emperor a higher bargaining chance, which he utilized by demanding the abolition of the Treaty of Wuchale and full recognition of Ethiopia as a Sovereign Independent Country by Italy and other European colonialist. 

Ethiopia became the only African country that fought off colonialist from their soil to avoid colonization and one of the two countries in Africa that wasn't colonized. 

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Wednesday, June 12, 2019

June 12, 2019

Mau Mau Uprising 1952 - 1960 Mau Uprising 1952 - 1960
The Mau Mau  uprising also called Kenya emergency, it was a resistance against the British colonial  in Kenya which is believes to have started in 1952 to 1960. White colonialist maltreatment of the blacks by expulsion of Kikuyu tenants from their farmlands, hardship, corruption, poverty, improper and unequal representation of Kenyans interest gave the people a reason to revolt.
The uprising involved the prominent ethnic group in Kenya, the Kikuyu tribe among other are very vibrant in fighting against the colonialist, they joined the KAU (Kenya African Union) and quickly dominated the politics of the KAU, they replaced the moderate constitutional agenda with a militant one. The nationalist KAU which was also called Muhimu began giving Kikuyu oathing, most through intimidation and forceful threats.
Also read: Soweto Uprising 1976 - Black School Children Protest Mau Uprising 1952 - 1960

To the British, the traditional oathing ceremonies were believe to bind the people to a cause against them,  they felt the ceremonies was used to forcefully recruit fighter for their rebellion so the British government in Kenya retaliated by organising de-oathing ceremonies. The Muhimu started attacking Kenyans who are loyal to the British and white settle. 
The actual date the rebellion started is still disputed by historian but it is recognized by some on October 1952 when the British government declared emergency in Kenya and troops were sent in to curb the rebellion. The troops carried out massive killings of the rebels and those believed to be habouring or sympathizing with the Mau Mau rebels were sent to detention camp. (fig. 150,000). Mau Uprising 1952 - 1960

Most Mau Mau rebels based in the forest of Mt. Kenya and Aberdares, but some Mau Mau supporters in the city placed a significant role in the rebellion in Nairobi and other major cities in British Kenya. The largest single massacre by the Mau Mau rebel was on March 26, 1953 in Lari where loyalist of the Home Guard families were murdered and set ablaze by the rebel. The Home Guard and British troops retaliated and killed close to 400 people or more. The Lari massacre was a turning point in the rebellion because of it disastrous effect on the people. Mau Uprising 1952 - 1960
By 1957, the uprising has almost been subdued with Mau Mau forest army largely broken and in 1960 the emergency was declared over. The British government made some reform and in 1963, Kenya was declared an independent sovereign country from the British Empire and Jomo Kenyatta became the nation's first President. 

Though the uprising may have been subdued by the British government but it played a major role in Kenya's struggle for independence and made the British government enact some laws that was favorable to the Kenyan people before independence. 

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Monday, June 3, 2019

June 03, 2019

Soweto Uprising 1976 - Black School Children Protest Uprising 1976 - Black School Children Protest
History will never forget the demonstrations and protest by black South African school children and youths on June 16 1976. Uprising 1976 - Black School Children Protest

A law was enacted on South Africa that forced all black schools in the country to adopt the use of Afrikaans (language of the Boers) and English in a 50-50 mix for instructions,  the Afrikaans Medium Decree of 1974". Afrikaans had to be used for mathematics, social studies and arithmetic from standard five while English would be used for general science and practical subject but indigenous languages could only be used for religious instructions, music and physical culture. Uprising 1976 - Black School Children Protest
Also read: Horn of Africa : Fact, Geography, Religion and Economy
On 16 June 1976, an estimate of about 20,000 black students from different high schools all over the country march round in critism of the Decree after it implementation on January 1, 1976 and the idea of learning through Afrikaans in school, the first stage of the protest started in Orlando Stadium which the students from different schools gathered for the rally both those that were aware of it before that day and those that got the information on the spot but still follow with the movement. 
When the march started,  the students sang and displayed placard showing slogans like "Down with Afrikaans", "Viva Azania" and "if we must do Afrikaans, Vorster must do Zulu". The protest was intended to be peaceful which it was until the police blocked their route and they had to change direction in other not to create any violence but the Police started releasing dogs on the students who killed it to avoid getting bitten by the dog, the police opened fire directly on the innocent black school children protesting peacefully against an imposition by the apathieth government of South Africa. 
Among the first school children shot was Hasting Ndlovo who was just 15 years old and Hector Pieterson who was 13, it was reported that the total number of black school children killed on the protest was around 176 but the government denied the claims and published their own report of 23 students killed during the protest by the Police. Uprising 1976 - Black School Children Protest
Also read: Samori Toure's Mandinka resistance against the French
Follow Up
The uprising and killings resulted to a violence retaliation against white population in South Africa and pressure was places on the government for it's role in the killing by African National Congress and other pro-Black movements in the country, black workers went on strike and more than 250 white students from the University of Witwatersrand marched on Johannesburg's city centre in protest of the government atrocities against school children.

Franklin D. Roosevelt once said "those who have long enjoyed such privileges as we enjoy forget in time that men have died to win them".

Wednesday, May 29, 2019

May 29, 2019

Horn of Africa : Fact, Geography, Religion and Economy of Africa : Fact, Geography, Religion and Economy
The horn of Africa is located in the Northeast of African continent and it is a peninsula. It extends into the Arabian Sea and along the South of the Gulf of Aden. The countries that make up the Horn of Africa are Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia and Djibouti.

Bio data of Countries in the Horn of Africa of Africa : Fact, Geography, Religion and Economy
Name- Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
Year of Independence: Never colonized
Capital City: Addis Ababa                               
Official Language: Amharic     
Currency: Birr of Africa : Fact, Geography, Religion and Economy
Name- Republic of Djibouti
Year of Independence: 1977
Capital City: Djibouti          
Official Language: French, Arabic and Somali
Currency: Djiboutian franc
Samori Toure's Mandinka resistance against the French of Africa : Fact, Geography, Religion and Economy
Name- Federal Republic of SomaliaYear of Independence: 1960
Capital City: Mogadishu                          
Official Language: Somali and Arabic
Currency: Somali shilling of Africa : Fact, Geography, Religion and Economy
Name- State of Eritrea
Year of Independence:De facto 1991 and De jure 1993
Capital City: Asmara                              
Official Language: None but has a working language (Tigrinya, Arabic and English)
Currency: Nakfa
They are sometimes referred to as the Puntite by the Egyptians,  Abyssinian (Abyssinia, former name of Ethiopia), and are currently referred to as the Horners. The land areas covers approximately 2 million km2 (770 thousand sq mile)  and with a population of roughly 115 million people (Ethiopia: 96.6 million, Somalia 15.4 million, Eritrea 6.4 million, and Djibouti 0.81 million)  and they share border with Sudan to the North,  Southern Sudan to the West,  Kenya to the South and the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, Arabian Sea to the East. of Africa : Fact, Geography, Religion and Economy

The Horn of Africa contains diverse terrains like the Ogaden desert, the highlands of Ethiopian Plateau, the Eritrean Coast as well as that of the Somalians and it is a home to Amhara, Tigray, Oromo, and Somali people. The Horn of Africa also called the Somalia Peninsula has three dominant religions that is widely practiced by the people and they are: Islam, Christianity and Judaism but they also have little segment of the population that practice traditional religion and practices.
The economy of the Horn of Africa according to IMF 2010 had a total GDP(PPP) of $106.224 billions and nominal of $35.819 billion. Some countries relies on export of products like coffee in Ethiopia and Banana and livestock in Somalia.

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Thursday, May 23, 2019

May 23, 2019

Samori Toure’s Mandinka Resistance against the French Toure’s Mandinka resistance against the French
Next in the Anti- expansionist resistance by Africans is the Samori Toure’s Mandinka resistance against the French.

Samori Toure defended his Mandinka Empire sometimes referred to as Wassoulou Empire from the French occupation and expansion in Africa from 1883- 1898 before its collapses and annexation into the French empire.
The French faced one of the stiffest resistance in the history of Europeans colonization, Samori had succeeded in establishing an empire around the upper basin of the River Niger by the year 1882, the capital was at Bissandugu, the French were not happy about the development and looked with envy at this rising empire and sought to conquer it into their colonial empire. After much persuasion by the French for Samori to surrender his sovereignty and independence to the French had failed, the French declared war on the empire in 1883.
Ammunition used by the armies of Samori were bought in Freetown, Sierra Leone from the British and also made by local blacksmiths, the use of cavalry and his knowledge of the terrain helped his resistance greatly. After few battles, he signed a treaty with the French in exchanged for peace which he gave up some of his territories. In 1886, the French violated the terms of the treaty and war/hostility resumed but few years later it was not too favorable to Samori because the British stopped the sale of arms to his armies in 1893 in accordance with the Brussels convention of 1890 among European colonizers.
After incurring major losses, he moved his capital to Dabakala and later surrendered in 1898 and was exiled by the French to Gabon where he died in 1900. His military skills a a commander earned him the appellation “Napoleon of Africa”.

Friday, May 17, 2019

May 17, 2019

Maji Maji resistance against the Germans 1905/1907 Maji resistance against the Germans 1905/1907
On 31 of July 1905, Matumbi tribesmen marched on Samanga and destroyed the cotton crop as well as trading post. The Maji Maji uprising in German East Africa was one of the most significant African challenges faced by the German colonial aspiration and leadership. The resistance lasted for two years and the casualties were estimated around 250000-300000 total death and injured, mostly civilian from famine, cross fire and hunger etc. 
Tanganyika (modern day Tanzania) was acquired by the German during the scramble for Africa and the Berlin Conference of 1884/1885, but the Germans established control over Tanganyika on 1898,and imposed a violent regime in other to control the population.
The brutal and oppressive administration imposed by the Germans made the people angry and it became unbearable when drought hit a region in Tanganyika, a prophet, Kinjikitile Ngwale claimed to be possessed by a snake spirit called Hongo and also can make a sacred liquid that could repel German bullets called “Maji Maji. The first group of rebellious tribes armed themselves with arrows, spears and the maji maji water to attack the first small German outpost at Samanga and to destroy the cotton crops.
It was the first significant rebellion that included most or all ethnic groups of Tanganyika against the Germans, some other reasons includes the seizure of native lands from indigenes to create German plantations, forceful use of the natives to work on cotton plantations, forbidding them from growing food crops and the Germans implementation of harsh methods to make them work harder.
To restore order, the Germans had to bring in soldiers from Sudan to defeat the resistance, the town of Samanga was destroyed and many Africans were killed. After restoring their authority, the Germans executed the leaders of the resistance.

Sunday, May 12, 2019

May 12, 2019

History of Africa before 1879 History
Before 1879, most of the interior and hinterland of the African continent was made up of states and kingdoms that enjoyed self government, sovereignty and limited independence from influence of the colonial might and their imperialist ambitions.
Apart from a few territories, the coastal areas like cape colony, Algeria, Senegal, Luanda , the Canary Islands and parts of the Gold Coast, which were directly or indirectly under European control, Africa's hinterland was free of colonial influence. European nations with lands and possessions along the African costal cities by 1879, including Portugal, British Empire, France and Spain. Powerful kingdoms in Africa at that time included the Fulani Empire Buganda, the Zulu kingdom, the Congo Kingdom, Asante and Zanzibar. These states of Africa had well organized political systems, sound societies and flourishing economics. The Europeans that traded with Africans did so with respect and at equal basis.
Most Europeans visitors to Africa by 1800-1880 were not so much interested in acquiring colonies but concerned more on trade, Forts were built on costal areas where the Europeans carried out trading activities. These forts served as residence and storage for goods that were brought by African middlemen who went into the interior of the continent. It was during the last twenty years of the century that changes started manifesting from costal areas to the interior of the continent.

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Tuesday, May 7, 2019

May 07, 2019

The Speech that defined Democracy

The popular Gettysburg Address was a speech that the United State's President Abraham Lincoln delivered at a ceremony of the Soldier's National Cemetery in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania on Thursday November 19, 1863 in honour of the fallen heroes at the victorious Battle of Gettysburg against the Confederacy.
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"Fourscore and seven years ago our fathers brought forth, on this continent, a new nation, conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived, and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battle-field of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting-place for those who here gave their lives, that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate, we cannot consecrate—we cannot hallow—this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us—that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they here gave the last full measure of devotion—that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain—that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom, and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth."
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Saturday, May 4, 2019

May 04, 2019

The Making of Europe's first Modern Constitution making of Europe's first Modern Constitution
Many people may have thought that French Constitution was the first modern constitution in Europe but surprising to them it's their Eastern Europe neighbor Poland-Lithuanian Commonwealth who had theirs four months earlier than the French even if their revolution date back to 1789 but the first French Constitution came a little too late on September 1791.
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Polish Parliament adopted their constitution on the 3rd of May 1791,making them the first in Europe and second in the world only to the United States of America who adopted theirs in 1787. making of Europe's first Modern Constitution
Also read: World First Labour Party Government
The Polish constitution was a constitution monarchy and it restricted some powers vested on noblemen who prior to that date had the power to singlehandedly veto a bill and can be bride to stop the progress for their selfish purpose, that veto (liberum veto) was also abolished along side other anti liberal powers of the noblemen.
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Must read: Why India and Pakistan wants Kashmir
Due to the imperialistic ambition of polish neighbors (Russian Empire, Prussia and Austria) the constitution lost effect after polish defeat on 24 July 1972 and Poland was partitioned between them.

Thursday, May 2, 2019

May 02, 2019

World First Labour Party Government

In the year 1904, Chris Watson led the first Labour Party government as the Prime Minister of Australia.
Australia practice a parliamentary system of government whereby the head of state(Governor General) is different from the head of government who forms the government from the majority in the House of Representatives elected by the masses.
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Also read : How the Europeans settled in Australia
In 1903,a federal election was conducted and the labour part had a upper hand but did not meet the requirements to form a government at the federal level, so after a little tussle for power they were able to form the first minority Labour Party government, first of it kind in the entire history but it didn't last more than three months before it collapsed in July of the same year,  it was initially a breakthrough for the Labour Party that year because few years later in 1910 federal election the Labour Party government won it's first majority government in Australia and around the world.
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Must read: Why India and Pakistan wants Kashmir
What do you think of the current Labour Party government policies in our contemporary world!!!

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Thursday, April 25, 2019

April 25, 2019


"Haske ya sa ku! Mahaifin ku a can!" The militants yells as they shoot randomly in my village, they kill everyone at sight, both the young and the old, it was chaotic and we ran. We did not just run, we were colliding among each other, both the young and old, the fatty and skinny, we ran! We fall! We collide. As we approach the gate of St Peter's Catholic Church, running inside the church with a sigh of relief.
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The militants got to our village very early, few of us that survived the massacre ran to the church for refuse since the war is tribal and not religious. We found the church to be our only Savior until the arrival of the military.
The number of people trooping into the church with pool of blood keep increasing, we never thought this crisis will get to this part of the country, like a butchers shop, the church was full of blood stains and splash. As we find where to sit down and pray to our God for help even though we know death is in the neighborhood.
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Suddenly, there was an announcement from the church that people of laka tribe should move to the parish house and wait for further instructions while others wait in the church compound. Then I know death is a wife I have to marry Now, as the church gate is locked, the militants made it out from their hideouts including the Bishop we love so much and trusted. As I drop the last tears, I wailed it's finished! I will die like my parents in the hand of familiar unknown enemy.
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Produced by ALEXANDER

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Friday, April 19, 2019

April 19, 2019

How Europeans settled In Australia

For Aborigines, they got there through migration over land bridges several thousands of years past. At least that’s the general hypothesis. So they found it by walking till there wasn’t ground any longer, the land bridges disappeared, then they would settle there and start inhabiting, and they did this for 40,000 years prior to white man.
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Must read: Why India and Pakistan wants Kashmir 
For Europeans, basically by accident.
It was generally believed that long before land was actually sighted, that there might be some sort of continental mass well south of Asia.
There was no specific mission set aside, as had been the case with North America. The first European to sight the Australian continent was Netherlander Willem Janszoon in 1606, along the coast of Cape York Peninsula. The Dutch mapped the northern outline, referring to the continent as “New Holland,” but did not settle there. Dirk Hartog, another Dutchman, made landfall in 1616 in Western Australia (on an island now named after him) but found little of value, and continued on to Batavia (Jakarta), Indonesia.
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Saturday, April 6, 2019

April 06, 2019

Why is Kashmir important to India and Pakistan is Kashmir important to India and Pakistan
After the partition of the Indian Empire on 1947, Pakistan and India has both claim to be the legal owners of Northern of Jammu and Kashmir which refused to join either of the two countries and remain neutral during the partition crisis of 1947.
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After pressure from both side the maharajah of Kashmir, Hari Signh signed an agreement with both parties, which they both agreed not to occupy or invade the region for two months so they can decide what next step to take. But it all changed when on October 1947 the maharajah of Kashmir confiscated weapons from the muslims and sent it to the British Army and it was later redistributed to the Hindu Village defence forces which provoked an uprising by the Muslims in Kashmir and it's neighboring Pashtun tribesman from Pakistan came in to assist as it was claimed.
Please support us by clicking on the advertisement, thanks. is Kashmir important to India and Pakistan
Must read : Why Patrice Lumumba was assassinated 
Thinking it was an invasion by Pakistan, the maharajah sought military assistant from India but Indian government agreed only if Kashmir will be handed over to India(claiming they need the right before interference), which the maharajah accepted and it was approved by the Governor General and Kashmir and Jammu was acceded to India on October 26, 1947, Pakistan disputed this agreement stating that Kashmir had no right to violate the stand-still agreement while it was still in force. 
The next day being October 27, 1947, Indian troops landed in Kashmir to fight the uprising and the tribesmen from Pakistan,  this led to Pakistan invading Kashmir and the first India - Pakistan war began.
Please support us by clicking on the advertisement, thanks. is Kashmir important to India and Pakistan
Must read: Easter Island Statue Mystery
During the war, the Prime Minister of India, Jawaharlal Nehru promised a referendum after the war. India referred the cases to the UN, which a resolution was passed that they both withdraw their troops from the region and that a referendum should be held for the people to decide their fate, but India and Pakistan never withdrew their troop and referendum was never held till this day.
Please support us by clicking on the advertisement, thanks. is Kashmir important to India and Pakistan
Must read: North Sentinel Island -The most Isolated and uncivilized tribe in the world  
A ceasefire was later agreed on January 1, 1949 and Kashmir was declared a disputed territory and the ceasefire line became the defacto border splitting Kashmir into two with India occupying 65 percent of Kashmir and Pakistan occupying the remaining. 
Three wars have been fought over Kashmir by India and Pakistan, but have you ever wondered what an independent United Kashmir will look like? 

Tell us on the comment below!!!