Friday, August 16, 2019

August 16, 2019

Sudan Crisis: Historic Transition to Civilian Rule in Sudan

Sudan's military rulers and protest leaders on Saturday are scheduled to sign a landmark deal reached after a bloody uprising which is meant to pave the way for civilian rule.
The ceremony will make official a constitutional declaration inked on August 4 between the country's Transitional Military Council and the opposition coalition of the Alliance for Freedom and Change.
The deal brought an end to nearly eight months of upheaval that saw masses mobilise against president Omar al-Bashir, who was ousted in April after 30 years in power.
The deal brokered by the African Union and Ethiopia was welcomed with relief by both sides, with protesters celebrating what they saw as the victory of their "revolution" and generals taking credit for averting civil war.
While the compromise meets several of the protest camp's key demands, its terms leave the military with ample powers and its future civilian government with daunting challenges.
With Saturday's official signing of the transitional documents, Sudan will kick off a process that will include important immediate first steps.
The composition of the new transitional civilian-majority ruling council is to be announced Sunday, followed two days later by the naming of a prime minister.
On Thursday, protest leaders agreed to nominate former senior UN official Abdalla Hamdok as prime minister.
The veteran economist, who stepped down last year as deputy executive secretary of the UN's Economic Commission for Africa, is to be formally selected on August 20, a statement said.
The cabinet is to be unveiled on August 28, with the newly-appointed ministers due to meet the sovereign council on September 1 for the first time.
Elections must be held after the 39-month transitional period that began on August 4.

Wednesday, August 14, 2019

August 14, 2019

East African Federation: The Future of East Africa

East African Federation is a planned union by countries of East African community - Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, South Sudan, Tanzania and Uganda into a federal union and a single country.  The federation will allow a free flow of it's citizens to every corner of the country and a single currency will unite them.

Around September 2018, a constitutional drafting committee was established for a constitution for the region.
The capital of the federation will not be in any of the country's capitals but will be in "Arusha", situated in Tanzania and the official language will be English while Swahili will be their lingual franca.
The East African Federation has a land mass of about 2,467,202 square kilometers (952,592 sq mi), it will be the largest country in the African Continent and 10th largest in the world.  And with it's 178,978,883 population as at 2018, would be the second most popular black African nation (second only to Nigeria) and eight in the world. 
The Single currency that has been planned for the federation is the East African Shilling and most of it's members are supposed to have adopted the currency before 2023. It's GDP (PPP) estimate would be around US$472.238 billion and will be the fifth largest in Africa and 43rd in the world. 
Also read: Lake Victoria : Facts, Geography and Origin
The idea of forming an East African Federation can be traced back to the founding fathers during the struggle for independence between for British colony of Kenya, Uganda, Tanganyika and Zanzibar. After a failed attempt by Julius Nyerere of Tanzania, Jomo Kenyatta of Kenya and Uganda's Milton Obote to form a federation, Tanganyika went ahead to form a federation with Zanzibar to what is known as Tanzania today. 
Also Read: Horn of Africa: Fact, Geography, Religion
The new push for federation started again in 2010, when EAC (East African Community) launched it's own common market for goods, labour and capital within the region with the goal of a common currency by 2013 and a full political federation in 2015, which has seen major extensions till this day. With South Sudan's admission into the community making them six members state in 2016, we look forward to a new federation for East African Community. 

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Monday, August 12, 2019

August 12, 2019

Border Wall: Equatorial Guinea will construct Trump like wall in Africa Wall: Equatorial Guinea will construct Trump like wall in Africa
The government of Equatorial Guinea plan on erecting a wall along the 183km-long border with Cameroon.

The Cameroonian authorities has not been pleased with the information over concerns on encroachment into her territories by the Equato- Guineans officials who have already erected milestones to demarcate the line along which the border wall will be constructed.

It is believed that the Trump's wall inspired the wall and Cameroonian government are not happy about the turn of event in the Central African Region. Wall: Equatorial Guinea will construct Trump like wall in Africa
 Also read: Lake Victoria: Fact, Geography and Origin
Tensions have been rising between the two countries since Equatorial Guinea discovered oil in the 1990s and tiny as it is with a population of about 1 million people, the Equatorial Guinea's government has blamed Cameroonian authorities for allowing illegal migrants from West Africa and other African States from the north to Equatorial Guinea in search of economic opportunity and they fear the influx of foreigner, mostly illegal will weaken an effort to provide jobs for it's citizens.

Equatorial Guinea has been serious about border security following the areas of 30 heavily armed men from Chad, Sudan and CAR along their northern border with Cameroon, the border was shut down on December 2017 over a reported coup attempt from Cameroon but reopened in January 2019.

Monday, July 29, 2019

July 29, 2019

Lake Victoria : Fact, Geography and Origin Victoria : Fact, Geography and Origin
Lake Victoria is the largest lake in Africa, it is a huge lake that is located in Eastern Africa along the equator and boarders countries like Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania.
It has an area of 26,828 square mile (69,484 squ km). It has the greatest length from north to south as 210 miles (337km), its coastline exceeds 2,000 miles (3,220km). Victoria : Fact, Geography and Origin

The lake's surface is 3,720 feet (1,134 metres) above sea level, and it's greatest ascertained depth is 270 feet (82 metre). Lake Victoria has a large species of fish which is more than 200 and Tilapia is the most important economically.
The body of water is named after Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom, it is the second largest freshwater lake while Lake Superior in North America is the largest freshwater. Victoria : Fact, Geography and Origin

It has been recorded that 80 percent of the lakes water comes from rain while other 20 percent comes from small stream flowing into the lake, the Kagera River is the largest river that flow into the lake while the two rivers that flows out of the lake are White Nile and Katonga river.

The first European to sight the lake was John Hanning Speke and it occurred in 1858 on his exploration to Central Africa and one of Africa worst maritime disaster took place on May 21 1996 when the ferry MV Bukoba sank in the lake, killing approximately one thousand people.

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Friday, June 21, 2019

June 21, 2019

First Italo-Ethiopian War - Italian embarrassing defeat in Africa Italo-Ethiopian War - Italian embarrassing defeat in Africa
The first Italo- Ethiopian war was fought between Italy and Ethiopia from 1894 - 1896, after the scramble and partition of Africa in the Berlin Conference of 1884/1885, Ethiopia remained independent and the Italian saw it as an opportunity to acquire more possession in the Horn of Africa by conquering Ethiopia. Italy had focused on the Red Sea areas around East Africa and have troops in the port city of Massawa in Eritrea which was then part of the Ethiopian Empire. Italo-Ethiopian War - Italian embarrassing defeat in Africa
The Italian government failed to evaluate closely the situation of Ethiopia due to the crisis they had with who would succeed the throne as the next emperor which caused disunity among Ethiopian noblemen.
On March 25 1889, the Shewa ruler Menelik II having acquired Tigray and Amhara declared himself the Emperor of Ethiopia with little support of Italian government so on May 2, he signed a treaty( Treaty of Wuchale) as part of their influence in his ascension which gave the Italian the administrative control of Eritrea and some portion of Red Sea Coast in return for Italian recognition of his rule. 
The treaty was bilingual in the sense that it was written in both Italian and Amharic(a language of Ethiopia), the Italian version of the treaty established Ethiopia as an Italian protectorate while the Amharic version stated that Emperor Menelik II can conduct foreign affairs through Italy if he wants to do so. 
Emperor Menelik II fought for a diplomatic solution but he was unable to achieve it so on February 12 1893, he terminated the Wuchale treaty, before that Menelik took the opportunity to make friendly relations with Russia and France(Djoubioti) while he sought for peaceful solutions. 
The Italian never expected the war to as long as it did,  they expected an overwhelming victory over the Ethiopian army thinking that they were small, poorly armed and disunity among noblemen after the tussle for the throne but they were wrong,  the entire tribes saw the Italian as their common enemy and they forgot their differences and forged together to fight off the colonialist. 
Emperor Menelik II assembled an army of 196,000 to partake in the conflict while the Italian were only able to gather 25,000 men including Eritrean fighters, it even got worse when the Italian found out at the battlefield that the Ethiopian armies were armed with modern rifle, rode on horseback and had rapid fire mountain guns. Italo-Ethiopian War - Italian embarrassing defeat in Africa
Emperor Menelik II
After much defeat from the Ethiopian forces,  the Italian army retreated to Mekele and Ethiopian army lay siege on the city for 45 days, the Ethiopian forces later occupied Adwa which was one of the important battles among many. The lost of Adwa by the Italian brought the war to a stalemate till early 1896. The Italians tried again to change the cost of the war with an offensive against the Ethiopian army but words got to the Emperor on time to strike first before the Italian were even prepared to attack. 
The casualties at the Battle of Adwa was so high on both side but it was an Ethiopian victory which gave the Emperor a higher bargaining chance, which he utilized by demanding the abolition of the Treaty of Wuchale and full recognition of Ethiopia as a Sovereign Independent Country by Italy and other European colonialist. 

Ethiopia became the only African country that fought off colonialist from their soil to avoid colonization and one of the two countries in Africa that wasn't colonized. 

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